AAGR average annual growth rate

ABC Africa–Britain–China

ACE ASEAN Centre for Energy [Indonesia]

ADB Asian Development Bank [Philippines]

AGOA Africa Growth and Opportunity Act

AIIB Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank [China]

AJK Azad Jammu and Kashmir [Pakistan]

ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations [Indonesia]

AU African Union [Ethiopia]

B&R Belt and Road

BOI Board of Investment [Pakistan]

BOT build–operate–transfer

BRF Belt and Road Forum [China]

BRI Belt and Road Initiative [China]

BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa

CAGR compound annual growth rate

CAICT China Academy of Information and Communications Technology

CAS Chinese Academy of Sciences

CBD China Development Bank

CBRC Chinese Banking Regulatory Commission

CCCC China Communications Construction Company

CCICED China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development

CCIEE China Center for International Economic Exchanges

CDP Committee for Development Policy

CEEC Central and Eastern European Countries

CEIS Centre for Economic and International Studies [Italy]

CEPR Centre for Economic Policy Research [UK]

CGTN China Global Television Network

CHINCA China International Contractors Association

CIDCA China International Development Cooperation Agency

CIDP County Integrated Development Plan [Kenya]

CIKD Center for International Knowledge on Development [China]

CITIC China International Trust Investment Corporation

CMEC China Machinery Engineering Company

CMEC China–Myanmar Economic Corridor

CMPort China Merchant Port Holdings

CNPC China National Petroleum Corporation

COPHC China Overseas Ports Holding Company [Pakistan]

CPC Communist Party of China

CPEC China–Pakistan Economic Corridor

CPHGC China Power Hub Generation Company

CREEC China Railway Eryuan Engineering Company

CSAIL China Three Gorges South Asia Investment Ltd

CSR corporate social responsibility

CT computerised tomography

DACU Development Assistance Coordination Unit [Myanmar]

DBAR Digital Belt and Road programme [China]

DCM Deputy Chief of Mission, Chinese Embassy

DRC Democratic Republic of Congo

DRC Development Research Center

DTMB digital terrestrial multimedia broadcast

E&S environmental and social

EAC East African Community

EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development [UK]

EEC Eastern Economic Corridor

EECO Eastern Economic Corridor Office of Thailand

EHP early harvest project

EPC Engineering Procurement Construction

ESA environmental and social assessment

ESAL Port Planning and Development Committee [Greece]

EVI Economic Vulnerability Index

eWTP Electronic World Trade Platform

FCSSC Finance Center for South–South Cooperation [Hong Kong]

FDI foreign direct investment

FKE Federation of Kenyan Employers

FOCAC Forum on China–Africa Cooperation [China]

FY fiscal year

GCG Green Credit Guidance

GDP gross domestic product

GNI gross national income

HAI Human Assets Index

HCI Human Capital Index

HDI Human Development Index

HRADF Hellenic Republic Asset Development Fund [Greece]

ICAPP International Conference of Asian Political Parties [Korea]

ICT information and communications technology

IDB Inter-American Development Bank [USA]

IDS Institute of Development Studies [UK]

IFC International Finance Corporation, World Bank [USA]

IFCPS Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability of the International Financial Corporation, World Bank Group [USA]

IIED International Institute for Environment and Development [UK]

IIER Institute of International Economic Relations [Greece]

IMF International Monetary Fund [USA]

IOBE Foundation for Economic and Industrial Research [Greece]

ITLOS International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

JCC Joint Cooperation Committee

JWC Joint Working Group

KCETA Kenya China Economic and Trade Association [Kenya]

KKH Karakoram Highway [Pakistan–China]

KNBS Kenyan National Bureau of Statistics

KPK Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [Pakistan]

LDC least developed country

LIC low-income country

LLDC land-locked developing country

M&A mergers and acquisitions

MDB multilateral development bank

MEE Ministry of Ecology and Environment [China]

MEP Ministry of Environmental Protection [China]

MFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs [China]

MOFCOM Ministry of Commerce [China]

MOGE Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise

MOI Means of Implementation

MOPF Ministry of Planning and Finance [Myanmar]

MoU Memorandum of Understanding

MPDR Ministry of Planning, Development and Reform [Pakistan]

MSDP Myanmar Sustainable Development Plan

MSDP-IU MSDP Implementation Unit

MTP Medium-Term Plan

MW megawatt

NDRC National Development and Reform Commission [China]

NECC National Economic Coordination Committee [Myanmar]

NEPRA National Electric Power Regulatory Authority [Pakistan]

NGO non-governmental organisation

NLD National League for Democracy [Myanmar]

NOC No Objection Certificate

O2O online to offline

OBOR One Belt, One Road [China]

ODA official development assistance

OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [France]

OFDI outward foreign direct investment

PBOC People’s Bank of China

PERS Port Environmental Review System

PPA Piraeus Port Authority [Greece]

PPP public–private partnership

RMB renminbi

SAIIA South African Institute of International Affairs

SAR Special Administrative Region

SBN Sustainable Banking Network [USA]

SDGs Sustainable Development Goals

SEZ Special Economic Zone

SGR Standard Gauge Railway

SHARP Strategic Hires and Retention Pathways

SIDS small island developing states

SIM subscriber identification module

SME small- and medium-sized enterprise

SOE state-owned enterprise

TEU Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit

UAE United Arab Emirates

UN United Nations

UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNDP United Nations Development Programme [USA]

UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe [Switzerland]

UNEP United Nations Environment Programme [Kenya]

UNEP FI United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative

UNGC United Nations Global Compact

UNPRI United Nations Principles for Responsible Investment

UNSW University of New South Wales [Australia]

WITS World Integrated Trade Solution

WWF World Wide Fund for Nature [Switzerland]